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Category Archives: Cyber Security, Hack and Fraud Alerts

Speech by Jon Cunliffe: ‘Is crypto a financial stability risk’?

Bank of England | Jon Cunliffe, Deputy Governor, Financial Stability | Oct 13, 2021

Sir Jon Cunliffe - Speech by Jon Cunliffe: ‘Is crypto a financial stability risk'?

Sir Jon Cunliffe, Deputy Governor, Financial Stability, BoE

Jon Cunliffe's Speech Overview delivered at Sibos:  Jon Cunliffe looks at the impact of ‘crypto’ on the stability of the UK’s financial system.  He says unbacked crypto-assets (eg Bitcoin) and backed crypto-assets for payments (stablecoins) have begun to connect to the financial system. And he talks about how regulators are responding to their rapid growth.

I want to talk today about whether the world of ‘crypto finance’ poses risks to financial stability.

Cryptoassets have grown by roughly 200% in 2021, from just under $800 billion to $2.3 trillion today. They have grown from just $16 billion 5 years ago. $2.3 trillion of course needs to be seen in the context of the $250 trillion global financial system. But as the financial crisis showed us, you don’t have to account for a large proportion of the financial sector to trigger financial stability problems – sub-prime was valued at around $1.2 trillion in 2008.

See: 

When something in the financial system is growing very fast, and growing in largely unregulated space, financial stability authorities have to sit up and take notice. They have to think very carefully about what could happen and whether they, or other regulatory authorities, need to act.

At the same time, they need to be careful not to over-react – particularly when faced with the unfamiliar. We should not classify new approaches as ‘dangerous’ simply because they are different. Innovation, technology and new players can tackle longstanding frictions and inefficiencies and reduce barriers to entry. Throughout history, they have been key to driving improvement and to increasing resilience in financial services.

I will give you my conclusions at the outset. Crypto technologies offer a prospect of radical improvements in financial services. However, while the financial stability risks are still limited, their current applications are now a financial stability concern for a number of reasons.

Cryptoassets are growing fast and there is rapid development of new applications for the technology. The bulk of these assets have no intrinsic value and are vulnerable to major price corrections. The crypto world is beginning to connect to the traditional financial system and we are seeing the emergence of leveraged players. And, crucially, this is happening in largely unregulated space.

Unbacked cryptoassets

Unbacked cryptoassets make up nearly 95% of the $2.3 trillion.

They are essentially non-replicable strings of computer code that can be owned and transferred without intermediaries. Bitcoin, of course, is the most prominent example, but there are now nearly eight thousand unbacked cryptoassets in existence. These have no intrinsic value – that is to say there are no assets or commodities behind them: the value of the cryptoasset is determined solely by the price a buyer is prepared to pay at any given moment.  As a result, their value is highly volatile.

See:  World Economic Forum (WEF) Warns of Cyberattack that will Collapse Existing Financial System

And while retail investment predominates in this market, there are signs of growing institutional investor interest, with these investors now thinking about whether to have crypto in their portfolio. More complex investment strategies are beginning to emerge, including crypto futures and other derivatives.

At the same time, core wholesale finance and financial market infrastructure firms are putting their toes in the water. Several global banks are offering, or are planning to offer, digital asset custody services. Some international banks have started to, or are looking at, trading cryptoasset futures and non-deliverable forwards; and offering wealth management clients cryptoasset investments, following client demand. Others have developed exchange platforms facilitating matched trades, or offer customers access to other crypto exchanges through their apps. Leading payment firms are also exploring ways of allowing people and businesses to use certain stablecoins for payments and for the settlement of transactions within their networks.

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NCFA Jan 2018 resize - Speech by Jon Cunliffe: ‘Is crypto a financial stability risk'? The National Crowdfunding & Fintech Association (NCFA Canada) is a financial innovation ecosystem that provides education, market intelligence, industry stewardship, networking and funding opportunities and services to thousands of community members and works closely with industry, government, partners and affiliates to create a vibrant and innovative fintech and funding industry in Canada. Decentralized and distributed, NCFA is engaged with global stakeholders and helps incubate projects and investment in fintech, alternative finance, crowdfunding, peer-to-peer finance, payments, digital assets and tokens, blockchain, cryptocurrency, regtech, and insurtech sectors. Join Canada's Fintech & Funding Community today FREE! Or become a contributing member and get perks. For more information, please visit: www.ncfacanada.org

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‘Evolved Apes’ NFT creator Evil Ape disappears with $2.7M

PC Gamer | Andy Chalk | Oct 14, 2021

Evolved apes - 'Evolved Apes' NFT creator Evil Ape disappears with $2.7M

Image credit: Evolved apes

Buyers got their NFTs, but a promise of a fighting game built around them went up in smoke.

Evolved Apes is a collection of 10,000 unique NFTs available for purchase on the NFT marketplace OpenSea. Each of them was also meant to be a character in an Evolved Apes fighting game, in which NFT owners would pit their apes against one another in battles for Ethereum cryptocurrency rewards (just as ancient hominoids did thousands of years ago, as I understand).

See:  Kraken Report: Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs): Redefining Digital Scarcity

But it's all gone disastrously off the rails:

According to a Vice report, one week after Evolved Apes went live, the head of the project vanished, taking 798 Ether—worth roughly $2.7 million—with them.

The money was raised through the sale of NFTs, and was expected to be used to support the development and marketing of the game. But the situation started to look sticky in September, according to the report, as project leaders began to fall off the radar and communications grew erratic. It also came to light that the artist on the project hadn't been fully paid, and winners of a social media contest hadn't been given their NFT prizes.

Backers eventually asked Mike_Cryptobull, a member of the community who spent a little over $10,000 on 20 Evolved Ape NFTs, to investigate the situation and compile a report on what exactly had happened. In it, he said that Evil Ape, the aptly-named administrator of the project's blockchain wallet (whose real identity isn't publicly known), had disappeared, taking the money with him. The official Evolved Apes Twitter account and website are also gone.

There is no mention about the pursuit of criminal charges in either Mike_Cryptobull's report or the Vice story, in part because it's not completely clear that a crime has been committed. According to Jdmjem, an administrator of the Fight Back Apes Discord, police reports were filed in the UK, where the Evolved Apes crew is based, but while there is "definitely an aspect of a scam," there may not technically have been one.

See:  Ways NFTs Can Reinvent Your Small Business

"The thing is that everyone did get what they paid for, an NFT," they said in an email sent to PC Gamer. "At the end of the day any promises of a game or other development fall out of the scope of your purchase."

"People are trying to file police reports but [the] problem is this is unknown turf and while unethical not technically illegal. We all got what we paid for."

There are still questions about the unpaid artist and contest winners, but the matter is further complicated by jurisdictional issues—the NFT market is international, and Evolved Apes purchases come from all around the world—and the fact that individual reports are for much smaller amounts than the sum total, and thus aren't likely to garner much attention or traction from police agencies.

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NCFA Jan 2018 resize - 'Evolved Apes' NFT creator Evil Ape disappears with $2.7M The National Crowdfunding & Fintech Association (NCFA Canada) is a financial innovation ecosystem that provides education, market intelligence, industry stewardship, networking and funding opportunities and services to thousands of community members and works closely with industry, government, partners and affiliates to create a vibrant and innovative fintech and funding industry in Canada. Decentralized and distributed, NCFA is engaged with global stakeholders and helps incubate projects and investment in fintech, alternative finance, crowdfunding, peer-to-peer finance, payments, digital assets and tokens, blockchain, cryptocurrency, regtech, and insurtech sectors. Join Canada's Fintech & Funding Community today FREE! Or become a contributing member and get perks. For more information, please visit: www.ncfacanada.org

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Plastic Policemen: Credit-card firms are becoming reluctant regulators of the web

The Economist | Oct 10, 2021

Plastic policemen - Plastic Policemen:  Credit-card firms are becoming reluctant regulators of the webFrom sex to free speech, what goes online is increasingly up to financial companies

WHO SHOULD police the internet? For some time now the question has tied companies, regulators and campaigners in knots. Social networks spend billions moderating content posted on their platforms, but are still criticised either for not removing enough toxic material or for stifling free speech. They are not the only ones to grapple with the problem. Banks and credit-card companies too are finding themselves playing a bigger role in what is said and done in the public square—to their, and their customers’, discomfort.

See:  Bank of Canada to become new regulator of fintech companies doing payments processing

Now the boundary of censorship is being extended further, into the pornography business. From October 15th adult websites worldwide will have to verify the age and identity of anyone featured in a picture or video, as well as the ID of the person uploading it. They will need to operate a fast complaints process, and will have to review all content before publication. These requirements are being imposed not by regulators but by Mastercard, a credit-card giant.

Websites can always choose not to work with Mastercard. But given that the company handles about 30% of all card payments made outside China, to do so would be costly. Visa, which manages a further 60% of payments, is also taking a firmer line on adult sites. And the trend goes beyond porn. In the shadier corners of the web, and in industries where the law is unclear or out of date, financial firms are finding themselves acting as de facto regulators.

Payments have become a tool of domestic and international policy,” says Aaron Klein of the Brookings Institution

Since the turn of the century, “payments have become a tool of domestic and international policy,” says Aaron Klein of the Brookings Institution, a think-tank. After the 9/11 attacks of 2001 America introduced new anti-money-laundering rules and more targeted sanctions. This system—a “21st-century precision-guided munition”, as a former head of the CIA called it—obliges financial firms to block payments to the individuals on a list which today runs to 1,604 pages.

See:  Payments without banks goes mainstream with Twitter on Bitcoin Lightning Network

Handing enforcement duties to companies relieves the taxpayer of some of the cost. Compliance departments at firms, meanwhile, have ballooned. It is not unusual for big banks, such as HSBC or JPMorgan Chase, to employ 3,000-5,000 specialists focused on fighting financial crime, and more than 20,000 overall in risk and compliance. In 2017 Accenture, a consultancy, reckoned that tech firms employed around 100,000 content moderators.

Payment companies in particular face a philosophical dilemma.

“On one hand they try to be very open, accepting, willing to facilitate payments for whomever. They’re not taking any sort of political or moral stance,” says Lisa Ellis of MoffettNathanson, a research firm. “But on the other hand, they also feel like they have a very strong responsibility in making sure that they’re not aiding and abetting any sort of crime.”

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NCFA Jan 2018 resize - Plastic Policemen:  Credit-card firms are becoming reluctant regulators of the web The National Crowdfunding & Fintech Association (NCFA Canada) is a financial innovation ecosystem that provides education, market intelligence, industry stewardship, networking and funding opportunities and services to thousands of community members and works closely with industry, government, partners and affiliates to create a vibrant and innovative fintech and funding industry in Canada. Decentralized and distributed, NCFA is engaged with global stakeholders and helps incubate projects and investment in fintech, alternative finance, crowdfunding, peer-to-peer finance, payments, digital assets and tokens, blockchain, cryptocurrency, regtech, and insurtech sectors. Join Canada's Fintech & Funding Community today FREE! Or become a contributing member and get perks. For more information, please visit: www.ncfacanada.org

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Forward Security Earns Select Tier Consulting Partner Designation from Amazon Web Services program

FWD Security | Release | Sep 28, 2021

AWS Select FWDSEC Badge - Forward Security Earns Select Tier Consulting Partner Designation from Amazon Web Services program

Forward Security Inc., a Vancouver-based application & cloud security consulting company, is proud to announce that it has earned the Select tier Consulting Partner designation from Amazon Web Services (AWS) through the AWS Partner Network (APN) program.

"We are very excited to be recognized as a Select tier Consulting Partner in the APN. Strong partnerships such as this enable us to deliver best-in-class application & cloud security consulting services to both AWS and Forward’s clients," said Farshad Abasi, CSO and Founder of Forward Security.

Founded in 2018, Forward's highly accomplished team delivers Cybersecurity solutions with focus on application and cloud security to mid-sized organizations in the Finance, Health, E-commerce, and Technology sectors. Services range from security risk assessment and pentesting, to DevSecOps and training, delivered by a team who has experience with some of world’s largest organizations such as HSBC, Intel, HP, and Motorola all the way to medium sized enterprises and even local start-ups. Forward’s Security Consultants have software development backgrounds and work closely with client’s teams to tackle security following a systematic approach, leveraging standards based and repeatable processes.

See: 

ISED: Cyber Security and Policy Statements

Fintech Fridays Podcast EP52: Technology Due Diligence Process and Cyber Security Risks


Forward Security’s Select tier Partner Status represents a high level of expertise with AWS, and will contribute to helping customers design, build, and manage secure cloud solutions on AWS.

“Your Code Security Experts”

Company Contact:

Dennis Oudijk
Director of Business Development
& Strategic Alliances Forward Security Inc. Phone: 604.505.6894
Email: d.oudijk@fwdsec.com

 


NCFA Jan 2018 resize - Forward Security Earns Select Tier Consulting Partner Designation from Amazon Web Services program The National Crowdfunding & Fintech Association (NCFA Canada) is a financial innovation ecosystem that provides education, market intelligence, industry stewardship, networking and funding opportunities and services to thousands of community members and works closely with industry, government, partners and affiliates to create a vibrant and innovative fintech and funding industry in Canada. Decentralized and distributed, NCFA is engaged with global stakeholders and helps incubate projects and investment in fintech, alternative finance, crowdfunding, peer-to-peer finance, payments, digital assets and tokens, blockchain, cryptocurrency, regtech, and insurtech sectors. Join Canada's Fintech & Funding Community today FREE! Or become a contributing member and get perks. For more information, please visit: www.ncfacanada.org

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Tips for storing confidential data

Kaspersky Blog | Hugh Aver | Aug 12, 2021

tips for storing confidential data - Tips for storing confidential dataLoss or leaks of sensitive information can be serious problems for small businesses. Here’s how to keep confidential data safe.

There’s no such thing as a business that doesn’t have sensitive data. Even a small retail company has documents with employees’ personal details that legally must remain confidential, for example. Bank documents would be hard to restore. Supplier and contractor contracts could include trade secrets.

To protect important data from loss or inappropriate disclosure, follow these seven tips.

1. Enable full disk encryption on all devices

On devices where confidential data is stored or transmitted (i.e., most of them), be sure to enable full disk encryption (FDE). Encryption protects the data in case the device falls into the wrong hands. In Windows, the FDE tool is called BitLocker. The macOS equivalent is FileVault. FDE is enabled by default on most iOS and Android phones; don’t disable it unless absolutely necessary.

2. Restrict confidential data to the office

Another way important data can fall into the wrong hands is through the loss (or theft) of physical media: external hard disks or flash drives. Ideally, they should never leave the office. In fact, if you must write to an external medium, you should encrypt the data beforehand. For example, many security solutions for small businesses support encrypted storage in the form of cryptocontainers.

See: 

Financial data unbound: The value of open data for individuals and institutions

ISED: Cyber Security and Policy Statements

Settlement in Plaid Fintech Data Case

 

3. Don’t transfer unencrypted data over the Internet

Sometimes you might need to send confidential data online, by e-mail or a file-sharing service. We strongly recommend avoiding it whenever possible, but if you absolutely have to send information, at least encrypt it first, in case of interception. The easiest way is to create a password-protected archive. Almost all archive utilities have this option. After you encrypt the information, send the password to the recipient through a different channel — for example, attach the information to an e-mail, but send the password through a messaging app that supports end-to-end encryption.

4. Delete sensitive data you no longer need

Even information that’s fallen out of use can still cause problems, so get rid of it. For less-sensitive information, at the very least, delete it and then empty your Recycle Bin so the data can’t be restored with a simple click. For anything even vaguely sensitive, use a file-shredder utility to prevent recovery.

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NCFA Jan 2018 resize - Tips for storing confidential data The National Crowdfunding & Fintech Association (NCFA Canada) is a financial innovation ecosystem that provides education, market intelligence, industry stewardship, networking and funding opportunities and services to thousands of community members and works closely with industry, government, partners and affiliates to create a vibrant and innovative fintech and funding industry in Canada. Decentralized and distributed, NCFA is engaged with global stakeholders and helps incubate projects and investment in fintech, alternative finance, crowdfunding, peer-to-peer finance, payments, digital assets and tokens, blockchain, cryptocurrency, regtech, and insurtech sectors. Join Canada's Fintech & Funding Community today FREE! Or become a contributing member and get perks. For more information, please visit: www.ncfacanada.org

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Synthetic Media and Deepfakes: An insurance industry threat

Insurtech Insights | Sep 24, 2021

insurtech deepfakes - Synthetic Media and Deepfakes: An insurance industry threatFrom bogus claims to reputational damage, the ability of synthetic media to seemingly bend reality is an emerging menace with a far reach.

If you are familiar with photo and video editing tools, then you have probably heard of deepfakes, an emerging breed of artificial intelligence-enhanced videos that have demonstrated the ability to blur reality in ways that are extremely difficult for humans or even machines to detect.

Unlike conventional video editing, deepfakes utilize artificial intelligence(AI) to alter or synthetically generate videos, bringing a new level of realism without the forensic traces present in edited digital media.

See:  World Economic Forum (WEF) Warns of Cyberattack that will Collapse Existing Financial System

While these advanced fakes may sound like science fiction, many researchers have concluded it is only a matter of time before deepfakes become nearly undetectable to the human eye and subsequently undetectable even to elaborate forensic tools.

Earlier this year, the FBI sounded the alarm that deepfakes are a new cyberattack threat targeting businesses. As a result, many organizations are pondering strategies to mitigate the risks and potentially undesirable outcomes that may result.

Deepfakes or synthetic media can effectively be used to file fraudulent claims, create fraudulent inspection reports, and even establish the existence and condition of assets that do not exist.

Think claims for exaggerated damage from a nearby hurricane or tornado or claims for items that don’t even exist, i.e., a non-existent Rolex watch that got insured and mysteriously went missing.

Does this suggest going back to using human adjusters and inspectors for important claims? While taking a step backward to manual inspection might help to eliminate the deepfake threat, a layer of protection against the deepfakes in self-service processes would serve better without undoing years of digital transformation.

Read:  How open-source software shapes AI policy

Moreover, with many claims processes moving to straight-through processing, with no human intervention required aside from exceptional cases, two in-line approaches are suggested for implementing a layer of defense:

  1. In-line detection: Using AI and rules-based models to detect deepfakes in all digital media submitted. Similar to the Deepfake Detection Challenge mentioned earlier, apply AI-based forensic analysis to every photo or video prior to processing a claim.
  2. In-line prevention: Digital authentication of photos/videos at the time of capture to “tamper-proof” the media at the point of capture. This could simply be as part of a secure app that prevents the insured from uploading their own photos, or even better, utilizing a blockchain or immutable ledger that protects against both inside and outside changes to the media by utilizing a global consensus model.

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NCFA Jan 2018 resize - Synthetic Media and Deepfakes: An insurance industry threat The National Crowdfunding & Fintech Association (NCFA Canada) is a financial innovation ecosystem that provides education, market intelligence, industry stewardship, networking and funding opportunities and services to thousands of community members and works closely with industry, government, partners and affiliates to create a vibrant and innovative fintech and funding industry in Canada. Decentralized and distributed, NCFA is engaged with global stakeholders and helps incubate projects and investment in fintech, alternative finance, crowdfunding, peer-to-peer finance, payments, digital assets and tokens, blockchain, cryptocurrency, regtech, and insurtech sectors. Join Canada's Fintech & Funding Community today FREE! Or become a contributing member and get perks. For more information, please visit: www.ncfacanada.org

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SEC takes legal action after crowdfunded marijuana investment scheme appears to go up in smoke

The Register | Tim Richardson | Sep 21, 2021

Crowdfunding how to spot a scam - SEC takes legal action after crowdfunded marijuana investment scheme appears to go up in smokePlatform and individuals charged in first case of its kind

US financial watchdogs have launched legal action against a cannabis-related investment scheme said to be the first case involving crowdfunding regulation.

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filed a complaint against three people – named as Robert Shumake Jr, Willard Jackson, and Nicole Birch – and Texan firm 420 Real Estate in the Eastern District court in Michigan, claiming the trio had been involved in selling nearly $2m in unregistered securities through two crowdfunding schemes.

See:  Crowdfunding Is Revolutionizing The Cannabis Industry. Here’s Why.

The SEC also charged the registered funding portal that hosted the offerings – TruCrowd – and its CEO Vicent Petrescu (name spelled as listed), with violating Section 4A(a)(5) of the Securities Act and violating crowdfunding rules, alleging they "served as gatekeepers and, as such, were responsible for taking measures to reduce the risk of fraud."

In papers filed yesterday [PDF], Shumake, Jackson and Birch were accused of marketing both offerings as "opportunities for investors to share in bountiful profits from the cannabis industry, by acquiring real estate and leasing it to companies engaged in the business of growing cannabis."

However, the complaint lodged by the SEC claimed that none of the money raised had been used to "acquire or improve cannabis real estate" as set out.

"None of the investors in either crowdfunding offering has received any return on their investment, and few investors have recovered any of the funds they invested," the watchdog said.

See:  SEC Votes to Approve Changes to Regulation Crowdfunding Increasing the Maximum Raise to $5 Million

Gurbir Grewal, director of the SEC's Division of Enforcement said:

"As companies continue to raise funds through crowdfunding, it will continue to make sure all involved are "accountable" and, if needs be, "enforce the protections in place for all investors."

Last year, the SEC relaxed the rules around crowdfunding limits, raising the ceiling from $1m to $5m.

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NCFA Jan 2018 resize - SEC takes legal action after crowdfunded marijuana investment scheme appears to go up in smoke The National Crowdfunding & Fintech Association (NCFA Canada) is a financial innovation ecosystem that provides education, market intelligence, industry stewardship, networking and funding opportunities and services to thousands of community members and works closely with industry, government, partners and affiliates to create a vibrant and innovative fintech and funding industry in Canada. Decentralized and distributed, NCFA is engaged with global stakeholders and helps incubate projects and investment in fintech, alternative finance, crowdfunding, peer-to-peer finance, payments, digital assets and tokens, blockchain, cryptocurrency, regtech, and insurtech sectors. Join Canada's Fintech & Funding Community today FREE! Or become a contributing member and get perks. For more information, please visit: www.ncfacanada.org

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