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Tornado Cash Developer Sentenced 5 Years Prison

Crypto Enforcement | May 16, 2024

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Tornado Cash developer Alexey Pertsev guilty of aiding money laundering sentenced to 64 months in prison

A Dutch court has sentenced Alexey Pertsev, Tornado Cash's developer, to 64 months in prison after being charged for aiding in the laundering of over $1 billion through the Tornado Cash platform, which was used to obscure the origins of cryptocurrency transactions. Some of these transactions were linked to North Korean hackers involved in cybercrimes such as the $625 million hack of Axie Infinity's Ronin Network by The Lazarus Group.

The verdict has sparked significant backlash from the cryptocurrency community, who argue that holding developers responsible for how their software is used could set a dangerous precedent that will stifle future technological development and innovations.

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Many see this as a fundamental threat to software development and innovation, particularly within open-source projects. Industry advocates and crypto users have expressed concerns that this could lead to a chilling effect on developers, who might fear similar legal actions for tools they create​.

Dutch Judge (translated):

"It was Tornado Cash that executed the concealing and disguising [of] activities.  When executing these activities with cryptocurrency derived from crime, Tornado Cash carries out money laundering activities."

Should software developers by liable for how their platforms are used?

The question of whether software developers should be liable for how potentially corrupt users use their platforms is complex and multifaceted, with arguments on both sides.

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For Liability

  • Advocates for holding developers liable argue that it creates a sense of accountability, ensuring that developers consider the potential misuse of their software. This could deter the creation of tools that facilitate illegal activities.  In other words, when developers know they might be held accountable, they might take greater care in monitoring and restricting the use of their platforms.
  • This perspective aligns with broader regulatory trends aiming to curb the misuse of technology for criminal purposes, as seen in various international regulatory frameworks.

Against Liability

  • Opponents argue that holding developers liable stifles innovation and discourages the development of new technologies, particularly in open-source communities. Many developers contribute to open-source projects without intending their software to be used for illegal activities.

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  • There is a concern that imposing liability could lead to unintended consequences, such as developers abandoning projects that could have legitimate and beneficial uses. This could also lead to a chilling effect, where developers avoid working on innovative projects due to fear of legal repercussions.  For example, tools designed for privacy and security, essential for protecting personal information, could be at risk if developers are overly cautious about potential misuse​.

A Balanced Approach for Fintech

  • In response to this case, fintech firms should consider implementing more sophisticated compliance protocols to monitor and prevent potential misuse of their platforms.
  • The fintech community needs to engage more actively with policymakers to help shape regulations that support innovation while providing necessary safeguards against misuse.
  • Increasing educational efforts around the ethical and legal implications of software development can help prevent unintended uses and improve compliance with existing laws.  This is tricky given the high demands for startup executives time but it needs to be prioritized.

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  • Regulators should have an active role in establishing clear ethical guidelines for software development, particularly in decentralized and open-source projects, can help clarify the responsibilities and legal obligations of developers.


The question of liability for software developers in the context of potentially corrupt users remains contentious. A balanced approach that considers both the need for accountability and the importance of fostering innovation is essential.  Pertsev is appealing the verdict.

NCFA Jan 2018 resize - Tornado Cash Developer Sentenced 5 Years PrisonThe National Crowdfunding & Fintech Association (NCFA Canada) is a financial innovation ecosystem that provides education, market intelligence, industry stewardship, networking and funding opportunities and services to thousands of community members and works closely with industry, government, partners and affiliates to create a vibrant and innovative fintech and funding industry in Canada. Decentralized and distributed, NCFA is engaged with global stakeholders and helps incubate projects and investment in fintech, alternative finance, crowdfunding, peer-to-peer finance, payments, digital assets and tokens, artificial intelligence, blockchain, cryptocurrency, regtech, and insurtech sectors. Join Canada's Fintech & Funding Community today FREE! Or become a contributing member and get perks. For more information, please visit:

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